jueves, 3 de junio de 2010

La sociedad gitana

Where did the gipsy people come from?

The gypsies are supposed to come from India.

How many gypsies are there in the world?

Throughout the world, there may be about 5 million and 8 million.

How many gipsies are there in Spain?

InSpain there is a number that often materialize as having between 500,000 and 700,000.

lunes, 10 de mayo de 2010

1. Why is it called a crude rate?

The crude birth rate (often referred to simply as the birth rate) is the most commonly used index of fertility. This is the ratio of the number of live births each year to the total population (usually measured at the mid-point of the year). It is expressed as the number of births per 1,000 population. e.g. if 3,000 babies were born in a population of 150,000, then the crude birth rate would be 20 per 1,000.

2. What aspect of population growth or decline is not measured by the natural increase calculation?

female fertility and infant mortality

3. Calculate the Birth and Death Rates for Ireland in each of the four years

1995: 13,54- 8,95

1998: 14,46- 8,47

2000: 14,32- 8,21

2002: 15,45- 7,49

4. Calculate the Natural Increase for Ireland in each of the four years.

5. Write a short paragraph outlining the population changes experienced over the period from 1995 to 2002, based on this data.

la poblacion a incrementado devido a que la cantidad de personas nacidas por año a aumentado i la cantidad de muertes por año a disminuido, por esto la poblacion aunmenta.

jueves, 29 de abril de 2010

las patatas

What do you think about this spread?
potato is a food widely used by young people and in my opinion potatoes is a good food for a healthy diet.

La poblacion del mundo


more populated areas of the planet are part of Europe, India, Southeast Asia, North America, part of the coast of Brazil and Argentina and the Gulf of Guinea.
because they are the most important cities of the world.

WHICH ARE THE MOST DENSELY POPULATED COUNTRIES? Is all territory densely populated.The higher Pareto are densely populated temperate note emisferio asia india china and urban areas.
not all the densely populated territory in the north emisferio 90% in the temperate zone, especially mind between 20 degrees and 50 degrees north latitude, in Asia about 4 million people in China and India 2.500
millions of fibula arleredor 40% of the population worldwide

jueves, 11 de marzo de 2010

Los Reyes Catolicos

Diplomatic: Scientific study of diplomas and other documents, in both its internal and external characters, primarily to establish the authenticity or falsity

A Dynasty is a series of rulers one or more States, Related to one another, or from all of the same family. By extension applies to every family that accumulates large share of the economic, political or social for several generations.

What was the Holy Brotherhood?

The Queen Isabella I of CastileOn the existing basis of the Brotherhoods who had raised some cities, a proposal by prosecutors Burgos, regularized and ordered the creation of the Hermandad in 1476 to protect trade, pacify the traffic on the roads hard and pursue the bandits. Moreover, as militia play an important role in the war in Grenada but would have a short life, because from 1498 was reduced back to local levels.

This institution has been understood as a tool for ensuring public order and the embryo of an army regular and specialized, particularly from 1480. Its main function was to prosecute and punish crimes in the open, outside the towns and cities.

It was created initially for a period of three years, was territorialized jurisdiction (five miles around each location with more than thirty neighbors eight provinces), organized his troops (one rider per hundred residents and one soldier for every hundred fifty, grouped in teams), we introduced its areas of legal action (theft, crimes, fires, summary trials with immediate application of the penalty), and was endowed with an economic structure (the financing for armholes), political and administrative ( Delegates from all the eight provinces, León, Zamora, Salamanca, Valladolid, Palencia, Ávila, Burgos and Segovia, the Council consisted of the Brotherhood).

Also introduced in the Crown of Aragon, with the idea of unifying institutions between Castile and Aragon, but the attempt failed. These ideas evolved into "The Guards of Castile."

What was the function of the Tribunal of the Inquisition?

Refers to several institutions dedicated to the elimination of heresy within the Catholic Church. The Medieval Inquisition, From which all others stem, was founded in 1184 in the area Languedoc (in southern France) To combat the heresy of the Cathars or Albigenses, which 1249Was introduced also in the Kingdom of Aragon (Inquisition was the first state) and that the Modern Age, With the union of Aragon and Castile, was extended to it by the name of Spanish Inquisition (1478 - 1821) Under direct control of the Hispanic monarchy, whose scope was later extended to America, The Portuguese Inquisition (1536 - 1821) And the Roman Inquisition (1542 - 1965). Although most countries were also Protestant persecution against Catholics in this case against radical reformers like Anabaptists and against alleged practitioners of witchcraft, courts constituted under the local real power or generally ad-hoc for each individual case and were not a specific institution.

king henry VIII of England

What happened during his reign?
How many wives did he have?

Who were they and what happened to them?

What happened to his relations with the Pope?
What was the name of the church he established in England?

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was also Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) and claimant to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII.
Henry VIII was a significant figure in the history of the English monarchy. Although in the great part of his reign he brutally suppressed the influence of the Protestant Reformation in England,[1][2] a movement having some roots with John Wycliffe in the 14th century, he is more popularly known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome ultimately led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. He remained an advocate for traditional Catholic ceremony and doctrine throughout his life, even after his excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church following the annulment of his marriage to first wife Catherine of Aragon and the marriage to his second wife, Anne Boleyn.[1][3] Royal support for the English Reformation began with his heirs, the devout Edward VI and the renowned Elizabeth I, whilst daughter Mary I temporarily reinstated papal authority over England. Henry also oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542. He is also noted for his six wives, two of whom were behea.

Henry Vlll brought religious upheaval to England. When he became king, most people belonged to the Catholic Church, which was headed by the Pope, in Rome. In 1534, Henry broke away from the Catholic Church and proclaimed himself head of the Church of England. The land and riches of the church became Henry's property and he sold off most of this land to dukes, barons and other noblemen.

KING HENRY VII, of England, was the first of the Tudor dynasty. His claim to the throne was through his mother, Margaret Beaufort, from John of Gaunt and Catherine Swynford, whose issue born before their marriage had been legitimated by parliament. This, of course, was only Lancastrian claim, never valid, even as such, till the direct male line of John of Gaunt had become extinct. By his father, Edmund of Hadham, the genealogists traced his pedigree to Cadwallader, but this only endeared him to the Welsh when he had actually become king. His grandfather, Owen Tudor, however, had married Catherine, the widow of Henry V and daughter to Charles VI of France. Their son Edmund, being half brother of Henry VI, was created by that King Earl of Richmond, and having married Margaret Beaufort, only daughter of John, Duke of Somerset, died more than two months before their only child, Henry, was born in Pembroke Castle in January 1457.The fatherless child had sore trials. Edward IV won the crown when Henry was four years old, and while Wales partly held out against the conqueror, he was carried for safety from one castle to another. Then for a time he was made a prisoner; but ultimately he was taken abroad by his uncle Jasper Tudor, who found refuge in Brittany. At one time the duke of Brittany was nearly induced to surrender him to Edward IV; but he remained safe in the duchy till the cruelties of Richard III drove more and more Englishmen abroad to join him. An invasion of England was planned in 1483 in concert with the Duke of Buckingham's rising; but stormy weather at sea and an inundation in the Severn defeated the two movements. A second expedition, two years later, aided this time by France, was more successful. Henry landed at Milford Haven among his Welsh allies and defeated Richard at the battle of Bosworth (August 22, 1485). He was crowned at Westminster on the 30th of October following. Then, in fulfilment of pledges by which he had procured the adhesion of many Yorkist supporters, he was married at Westminster to Elizabeth (1465-1503), eldest daughter and heiress of Edward IV (Jan. 18, 1486), whose two brothers had both been murdered by Richard III. Thus the Red and White Roses were united and the pretexts for civil war done away with.Nevertheless, Henry's reign was much disturbed by a succession of Yorkist conspiracies and pretenders. Of the two most notable impostors, the first, Lambert Simnel, personated the Earl of Warwick, son of the Duke of Clarence, a youth of seventeen whom Henry had at his accession taken care to imprison in the Tower. Simnel, who was but a boy, was taken over to Ireland to perform his part, and the farce was wonderfully successful. He was crowned as Edward VI in Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin, and received the allegiance of every one — bishops, nobles and judges, alike with others. From Ireland, accompanied by some bands of German mercenaries procured for him in the Low Countries, he invaded England; but the rising was put down at Stoke near Newark in Nottinghamshire, and, Simnel being captured, the king made him a menial of his kitchen.This movement had been greatly assisted by Margaret, duchess dowager, of Burgundy, sister of Edward IV, who could not endure to see the House of York supplanted by that of Tudor. The second pretender, Perkin Warbeck, was also much indebted to her support; but he seems to have entered on his career at first without it. And his story, which was more prolonged, had to do with the attitude of many countries towards England. Anxious as Henry was to avoid being involved in foreign wars, it was not many years before he was committed to a war with France, partly by his desire of an alliance with Spain, and partly by the indignation of his own subjects at the way in which the French were undermining the independence of Brittany. Henry gave Brittany defensive aid; but after the duchess Anne had married Charles VIII of France, he felt bound to fulfil his obligations to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, and also to the German king Maximilian, by an invasion of France in 1492. His allies, however, were not equally scrupulous or equally able to fulfil their obligations to him; and after besieging Boulogne for some little time, he received very advantageous offers from the French king and made peace with him.Now Perkin Warbeck had first appeared in Ireland in 1491, and had somehow been persuaded there to personate Richard, Duke of York, the younger of the two princes murdered in the Tower, pretending that he had escaped, though his brother had been killed. Charles VIII, then expecting war with England, called him to France, recognized his pretensions and gave him a retinue; but after the peace he dismissed him. Then Margaret of Burgundy received him as her nephew, and Maximilian, now estranged from Henry, recognized him as king of England. With a fleet given him by Maximilian he attempted to land at Deal, but sailed away to Ireland and, not succeeding very well there either, sailed farther to Scotland, where James IV received him with open arms, married him to an earl's daughter and made a brief and futile invasion of England along with him. But in 1497 he thought best to dismiss him, and Perkin, after attempting something again in Ireland, landed in Cornwall with a small body of men.Already Cornwall had risen in insurrection that year, not liking the taxation imposed for the purpose of repelling the Scotch invasion. A host of the country people, led first by a blacksmith, but afterwards by a nobleman, marched up towards London and were only defeated at Blackheath. But the Cornishmen were quite ready for another revolt, and indeed had invited Perkin to their shores. He had little fight in him, however, and after a futile siege of Exeter and an advance to Taunton he stole away and took sanctuary at Beaulieu in Hampshire. But, being assured of his life, he surrendered, was brought to London, and was only executed two years later, when, being imprisoned near the Earl of Warwick in the Tower, he inveigled that simple-minded youth into a project of escape. For this Warwick, too, was tried, condemned and executed — no doubt to deliver Henry from repeated conspiracies in his favour.Henry had by this time several children, of whom the eldest, Arthur, had been proposed in infancy for a bridegroom to Catherine, daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon. The match had always been kept in view, but its completion depended greatly on the assurance Ferdinand and Isabella could feel of Henry's secure position upon the throne. At last Catherine was brought to England and was married to Prince Arthur at St Paul's on the 14th of November 1501. The lad was just over fifteen and the co-habitation of the couple was wisely delayed; but he died on the 2nd of April following. Another match was presently proposed for Catherine with the king's second son, Henry, which only took effect when the latter had become king himself [cf. Henry VIII]. Meanwhile Henry's eldest daughter Margaret was married to James IV of Scotland — a match distinctly intended to promote international peace, and make possible that ultimate union which actually resulted from it. The espousals had taken place at Richmond in 1502, and the marriage was celebrated in Scotland the year after.In the interval between these two events Henry lost his queen, who died on the 11th of February 1503, and during the remainder of his reign he made proposals in various quarters for a second marriage — proposals in which political objects were always the chief consideration; but none of them led to any result. In his latter years he became unpopular from the extortions practised by his two instruments, Empson and Dudley, under the authority of antiquated statutes. From the beginning of his reign he had been accumulating money, mainly for his own security against intrigues and conspiracies, and avarice had grown upon him with success. He died in April 1509, undoubtedly the richest prince in Christendom. He was not a niggard, however, in his expenditure. Before his death he had finished the hospital of the Savoy and made provision for the magnificent chapel at Westminster which bears his name. His money-getting was but part of his statesmanship, and for his statesmanship his country owes him not a little gratitude. He not only terminated a disastrous civil war and brought under control the spirit of ancient feudalism, but with a clear survey of the conditions of foreign powers he secured England in almost uninterrupted peace while he developed her commerce, strengthened her slender navy and built, apparently for the first time, a naval dock at Portsmouth.In addition to his sons Arthur and Henry, Henry VII had several daughters, one of whom, Margaret, married James IV, King of Scotland, and another, Mary, became the wife of Louis XII of France, and afterwards of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk.

sábado, 6 de marzo de 2010

La Peste Bubónica


The septicemic and bubonic plague were transmitted with direct contact with a flea, while the pneumonic plague was transmitted through airborne droplets of saliva coughed up by bubonic or septicemic infected humans.

The bubonic and septicemic plague were transmitted by the the bite of an infected flea.

The pneumonic plague was transmitted differently than the other two forms . It was transmitted through droplets sprayed from the lungs and mouth of an infected person. In the droplets were the bacteria that caused the plague. The bacteria entered the lungs through the windpipe and started attacking the lungs and throat.

¿de donde llego la plaga?

It is believed the plague originated in Asia, and moved west with Mongol armies and traders.

According to a traditional story, the plague came to Europe from the town of Caffa, a Crimean port on the Black Sea where Italian merchants from Genoa maintained a thriving trade center. The Crimea was inhabited by Tartars, a people of the steppe, a dry, treeless region of central Asia. When the plague struck the area in 1346, tens of thousands of Tartars died. Perhaps superstition caused the Muslim Tartars to blame their misfortune on the Christian Genoese. Or perhaps a Christian and Muslim had become involved in a street brawl in Caffa, and the Tartars
wanted revenge. In any case, the Tartars sent an army to attack Caffa, where the Genoese had fortified themselves. As the Tartars laid siege to Caffa, plague struck their army and many died. The Tartars decided to share their suffering with the Genoese. They used huge catapults to lob the infected corpses of plague victims over the walls of Caffa. As the Tartars had intended, the rotting corpses littered the streets, and the plague quickly spread throughout the besieged city. The Genoese decided they must flee; they boarded their galleys and set sail for Italy, carrying rats, fleas, and the Black Death with them.

esfuerzos para detener la plaga:
Although the government had medical workers try to prevent the plague, the plague persisted. Most medical workers quit and journeyed away because they feared getting the plague themselves.